Professor Stephen Oppenheimer

Invited Lectures, websites and TV Series

2013

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Human evolution & migration and the roles of water bodies’
Invited introductory lecture to an International Conference entitled “Human Evolution, Past, Present & Future: Anthropological, Medical and Nutritional Considerations, Grange St Paul’s Hotel London, 11/05/2013.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Numbers of exits, routes and dates of Late Pleistocene Homo dispersals between Africa and South Asia: which queries can genetics help with best?’
Invited talk to a workshop 'Out of Africa, Into South Asia': Building a collaborative understanding of the earliest human dispersals, A UK-India British Academy sponsored International Partnership Workshop, sponsored by the British Academy, Balliol College, University of Oxford, 16 - 17/04/2013.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Africa: when, which way and how many exits?’
Invited talk to the Palquat seminar series to the School of Archaeology, Institute of Archeology, University of Oxford, 02/05/2013.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Post-Glacial Recolonisation of the Atlantic Façade’
Invited lecture at the Atlantiar Conference of the Jauzarrea Foundation for the Study and dissemination of Basque Culture, Ficoba Auditorium, Irun, San Sebastian, 17/05/2013.

2012

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"Sundaland Origins: Peoples and Culture” Invited keynote speaker for the seminar “Rethinking Human Civilization"’
Indonesian Studies Update International Seminar Series (ISUS), Centre for Indonesian Studies,Faculty of Humanities, University of Indonesia, Depok, 28 - 29/11/2012.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Discussion and interpretation of uniparental genome origins in relation to the earliest peopling of the Americas: a re-appraisal of the genetic evidence for an early founding event from West Eurasia’
Invited lecture in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Cathy Kerby Room for the Pre-Clovis Conference, Washington DC, 09/11/2012.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Early Civilization in Indonesia and Areas Surrounding It (South East Asia)’
4th International Conference and Summer School in Indonesian Studies (ICSSIS), “Unity, Diversity and Future”, Bali, Indonesia, 9 - 10/02/2012.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Africa: peopling of the world and origins of Malays’
Invited keynote lecture given at a conference on the Origins of Malays at the World Trade Centre Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for the National University of Malaysia, 20/01/2012.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The peopling of the World and of the European islands of Britain and Ireland’
Invited Darwin Day lecture to the Humanist Association of Ireland at Trinity College Dublin, 24/02/2012.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘When did we become modern? Can studies of prehistoric migration and crude brain & body size give any additional perspective on the time line and trajectory of human cognitive & cultural evolution’
Invited lecture to the Oxford University Cortex Club at the Sherrington Building Library, 29/05/2012.

2011

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘An Aryan Invasion of India? big, small, or more culture than genes – and when? Examination of the genetic evidence’
Evidence for the Aryan Invasion Hypothesis, The Lalit Hotel, New Delhi, India, 18/01/11.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Invited treatment-writer, series adviser, main talking head/ ‘expert witness’ and consultant’
The Norwegian Broadcasting Company (NRK) TV-documentary series, ‘Norwegian Roots’, Screened Autumn 2011.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out-of-Africa, the peopling of continents & islands: tracing uniparental gene trees across the map’
Invited lecture at the 2-day public meeting, “Human evolution, migration and history revealed by genetics, immunity and infection”, Royal Society, London, 06/06/2011-07/06/2011.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Potential for applying uniparental genetic phylogeography to the Basque Diaspora in the Americas’
Invited lecture at “In the Wake of the Basque whalers. Cultural and genetic heritage of Basques and First Nations People”, UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, 21/09/2011.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Reconstruction of ancient migrations using multiple lines of evidence’
Invited lecture at the Satellite meeting “Human evolution – plagues, pathogens and selection”, The Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire, 08/06/2011-09/06/2011.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Origins of the British and the Relevance for the Basque Country’
Two invited lectures given to “Euskararen Jatorria” (‘Origins of the Basque Cultural Association’) at their annual meeting, Puente La Reina-Gares (Navarra District) 7 May and in San Sebastian 11 May 2011, 7/05/11 and 11/05/2011.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Peopling of the World and how to use genetic phylogeography to trace migrations’
Evidence for the Aryan Invasion Hypothesis, The Lalit Hotel, New Delhi, India, 17/01/2011.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The post-glacial peopling of the British Isles: can 'Celtic' and 'Anglo-Saxon' physical intrusions be defined and measured?’
Invited lecture given at the international colloquium ‘Aires linguistiques / Aires culturelles, Etudes de correspondances en Europe occidentale: zones Manche et Atlantique’, Centre de Recherche Bretonne et Celtique, Brest, 09/06/2011-10/06/2011.

2010

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East: the drowned continent of Southeast Asia’
Invited lecture, Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI), The Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia, 28/10/2010.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East: The Importance of Sea Level Changes over the Sunda Shelf in the Spread of People and Culture in Southeast Asia and the Pacific over the Last 15,000 Years’
Invited lecture at the International conference on the prehistory of Sundaland, Bogor University, Bogor, Indonesia, 28/10/2010.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Iron and Infection: Narrative review on a major iron supplementation study in New Guinea mounted from the Department of Tropical Paediatrics LSTM 1979-1983, its aftermath and the continuing relevance of its results’
Invited talk given at the memorial seminar for the late Professor Ralph Hendrickse, former chair of Tropical Paediatric Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 5/11/2010.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden: the peopling of the world’
An invited lecture to 6th formers, Westminster School, Westminster, London, 10/02/2010.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The peopling of the world, and the role of the Middle East and Turkey as a gateway to the European peninsula’
Annual invited lecture at the Annual Evolution Conference of a Biogen, The student club of Biology and Genetics at the Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey, 07/11/2010.

2009

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Use of mitochondrial DNA in tracking Human Migrations’
Invited lecture to the Biology Student Association (Utrechtse Biologen Vereniging), of the Utrecht University, the Netherlands, to celebrate its 85th anniversary and honor the Darwin Year 200., Wentgebouw at the Uithof, Utrecht, the Netherlands, 12/05/2009.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Origins of the British’
Invited lecture at Joint meeting of Bath and Camerton Archaeological Society and Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institute to mark Darwin 200 anniversary, Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institute, 12/03/2009.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Can we define Celts genetically'’
Invited lecture on Archaeology and DNA studies, at “The Archaeology Festival 2009”. Cardiff, jointly sponsored by Current Archaeology, Cardiff University and the National Museum Cardiff., National Museum Cardiff., 06/02/2009.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Genetic Prehistory of Humans'’
Invited lecture to mark the Darwin 200 anniversary., Warwick University, Department of Biological Sciences., 30/01/2009.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘MtDNA variation and modern human dispersals in Mainland Southeast Asia'’
Invited lecture at a Multidisciplinary Workshop 'Dynamics of Human Diversity in Mainland Southeast Asia'., l'Ecole Française d'Extrème Orient, Siem Reap, Cambodia., 06/01/2009.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Invited Lecture "Evidence for a single southern migration of the ancestors of all modern humans outside Africa - and when" Oxford University Biological Society, Oxford, 20th November, 2009.’
.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Invited Lecture "Human Prehistory and the use of DNA" at the Saturday Day School: From Darwin to DNA: Exploring evolution in prehistoric Archaeology, Manchester Museum, Kanaris Lecture Theatre, Manchester 13th November 2009.’
.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Invited Lecture "Out of Africa" The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming, Yunnan, China. 4th August, 2009.’
.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Invited Lecture "Taiwan, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, a Genetic Perspective", at PNC 2009 (Pacific Neighbourhood Consortium Annual Conference held at Academica Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan) October 8th 2009’
.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Invited Lecture (Out of Eden the scientific background to the BBC series The Incredible Human Journey) and Interview "Stephen Oppenheimer and Alice Roberts" at the Cheltenham Festival 'Literature09', 13th October, 2009.’
.

2008

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The genetic background of the Western British Isles: pre-farming settlement and a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age Iberian founding event in North Wales'’
Invited lecture, at the project forum ‘Celtic Languages and Cultural Identity’, The National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth., 06/12/2008.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East: human evidence for the drowning of Southeast Asia'’
invited keynote address for ALAMAT, 1st International Conference on Myths and Symbols., The College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines, Manila, 24/11/2008.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Man's History: Out of Africa and Beyond’
Invited lecture, to The Plymouth Medical Society., Derriford Hospital, Plymouth. Devon PL6 8DH., 07/10/2008.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Celts: British aboriginals or minority invaders up the Atlantic coast: a genetic perspective’
Invited lecture, to the Prehistoric Society's Europa day-conference, entitled Britons in the Celtic World: Contrasting Perspectives., Martin Wood Lecture Theatre, Department of Physics, University of Oxford., 17/05/2008.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British'’
Invited lecture, to The Harveian Society of London,, Lettsom House, 11 Chandos Street, London., 14/05/2008.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British - A Genetic Detective Story'’
Invited lecture in the public series for 'Alfred the Great: Warfare, Wealth and Wisdom' exhibition., The Performance Hall, Winchester Discovery Centre, Winchester., 17/04/2008.

2007

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Origins of the British: a genetic detective story'’
Invited Public Lecture to Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne jointly with Newcastle University., Curtis Auditorium, Herschel Building, Newcastle, 28/11/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Importance of the Southeast Asian Archaeological Heritage: From a Genetic Perspective'.’
Invited Keynote Lecture, by Malaysian Archaeological Association: International Seminar: Sharing our Archaeological Heritage., Johore, Malaysia, 11/11/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Origins of the British: a genetic detective story'’
Invited Public Lecture at the Edinburgh Festival ., Edinburgh Book Festival, 24/08/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Great Arc of Human Dispersal'’
Invited Keynote talk INQUA (International Quaternary Association) 2007 Congress., Cairns, Australia., 30/07/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British - A Genetic Detective Story'’
Invited Public Lecture at the Devizes Festival,, Devizes Town Hall., 12/06/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British - A Genetic Detective Story'’
Invited Keynote Lecture to the Society for the Study of Human Biology., The Institute of Human Sciences, Pauling Centre, Oxford University., 31/05/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British - A Genetic Detective Story'’
Invited Public Lecture at Oundle School., Oundle., 16/03/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British - A Genetic Detective Story'’
Invited Public Lecture at the British Museum., The British Museum, London., 08/03/2007.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Man's history: Out of Africa and Beyond’
Invited public lecture to celebrate the bicentenary of the Royal Geological Society ., Burlington House, London.

2006

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘'Pleistocene and Holocene genetic prehistory in the Asia Pacific Region'’
Invited seminar at the joint workshop "Language and Genes in East Asia / Pacific" held by The European Science Foundation, the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange and the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study., Uppsala, Sweden,, 12/12/2006.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British - A Genetic Detective Story'’
Invited Public Lecture to the Smurfitt Dept of Genetics., University of Trinity College Dublin, Ireland., 20/11/2006.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of the British - A Genetic Detective Story'’
Invited Seminar to the Quaternary Discussion Group, University of Cambridge., Christ's College Cambridge., 20/10/2006.

2005

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer and Bruner, Emiliano
‘Discussant for presentation 'Structural endocranial differences between modern and non-modern humans'’
One-day symposium "Psychosis as a disorder of modern Homo sapiens", The Prince of Wales International Centre for SANE Research, Oxford., 25/09/2005.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Africa: one or more exits and when? Does it matter?' ’
Invited public lecture, endowed “Kopriva Lecture” at Montana State University, In the Hager Auditorium, the Museum of the Rockies,, 10/09/2005.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"The Real Eve: Modern Man's Journey out of Africa"’
Invited public lecture at the Field Museum Chicago,, The Field Museum Chicago., 07/09/2005.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘“Following populations or molecules? Two contrasting approaches and descriptive outcomes of island colonization arising from a similar knowledge-base”’
Invited lecture at the symposium: “Simulations, Genetics and Human Prehistory – A Focus on Islands”, The McDonald Institute for Archaeology, Cambridge., 01/08/2005.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Talking Genes: Is human language a natural progression in animal communication or has there been a genetic leap in our ability to communicate?’
Invited panel member in an ICA public debate on language evolution. Chair: Professor Amanda Fisher, The Institute of Contemporary Arts Centre Pall Mall,, 14/07/2005.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Commentary on research papers relating to iron supplementation trials.'’
Invited WHO expert to give prepared commentary on tabled papers at the WHO-UNICEF-IVACG Meeting on micronutrient supplementation., The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in Florence, Italy., 17/04/2005.

2004

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Arguments for and Logical consequences of a Single Successful Exit of Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) from Africa.'’
Invited Keynote Lecture at the Australasian Society for Human Biology, Annual Conference, Australian National University, Canberra., 01/12/2004.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘'The 'Austronesian' story and farming-language dispersals: Caveats on timing and independence in proxy lines of evidence from the Indo-European model.'’
Oral presentation, 10th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeology., The British Museum, Great Russell Street, London., 14/09/2004.
Stephen Oppenheimer
Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World
Invited Lecture at the National Institute of Health and Human Sciences,, Australian National University;, 01/09/2004.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Medicine and other places'’
Invited Lecture to the Oxford Medical Students Society., The Oxford Medical Sciences Teaching Centre., 04/05/2004.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East: the drowned continent of Southeast Asia'’
Invited Lecture, The British Museum., London,, 22/01/2004.
Stephen Oppenheimer
'Journey of Mankind: the peopling of the world'
On-line, genetic, interactive, map based on Out of Eden, in collaboration with the Bradshaw Foundation., http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/stephenoppenheimer/.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East & Out of Eden'’
Invited Lecture Botnar Research Centre., Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford..
Stephen Oppenheimer
Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World
Invited Lecture, Institute of Advanced Studies,, University of Western Australia,.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World’
Invited Lecture, The Australian Museum Society., Sydney, Australia..
Stephen Oppenheimer
Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World
Invited Lecture, University of Queensland., Brisbane, Queensland, Australia..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World’
Invited Lecture, Cheltenham Science Festival., Cheltenham Festival.
Stephen Oppenheimer
Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World
Invited Lecture, Edinburgh Science Festival., The Royal Museum Edinburgh,.

2003

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World’
Invited author talk at Borders bookshop,, Oxford,, 31/07/2003.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden'’
Invited Live on-line Lecture "Out of Eden" Natural History Museum., Darwin Centre Live: Natural History Museum, London,, 30/07/2003.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden'’
Invited Lecture, The British Museum., London,, 17/07/2003.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden: the Peopling of the World’
Invited author talk 'Ways With Words' Literary Festival, Dartington Hall, Devon., 13/07/2003.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East'’
Invited lecture at the First Amsterdam Tropical Child Health Week, Amsterdam Medical Centre University of Amsterdam, Netherlands., 26/05/2003.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Iron, malaria and immunity'’
Invited lecture at the First Amsterdam Tropical Child Health Week., Amsterdam Medical Centre University of Amsterdam, Netherlands., 26/05/2003.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Out of Eden'’
Series Consultant & talking head for, Channel 4 TV Documentary., Channel 4, UK..

2002

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
Human Origins: Migrations (Out of Africa)'
Guest live-interview for a DNAI Interactive Video Presentation. On-line Video site (since 2003): http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html?m=4,4, The Dolan DNA learning center, Cold Spring Harbour Laboratories, Long Island, New York., 30/10/2002.
Stephen Oppenheimer and Martin Richards MB, Hill C, Rengo C, Meehan w, Blackburn J, Taha A, Ismail P, Bulbeck D, Torroni A,
‘Orang Asli and East Asian diasporas: MtDNA evidence’
Oral Presenter at the biennial Cold Spring Harbour conference on 'Human Origins and Disease', Cold Spring Harbour Laboratories, Long Island, New York, USA., 30/10/2002.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Austronesian spread into Southeast Asia and Oceania: where from and when?'’
Invited keynote speaker: International Conference for the 50th anniversary of the first Lapita excavation (July 1952)., Koné - Nouméa, New Caledonia,, 31/07/2002.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"Genes, Language & Culture"’
Invited Speaker at the 7th International Workshop and Conference on MHC Evolution, and VIII Complement Genetics Workshop., Perth, Wester4n Australia..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"Why should Globin gene mutations protect against other serious infections as well as malaria?"’
Invited Speaker at the 7th International Workshop and Conference on MHC Evolution, and VIII Complement Genetics Workshop., Perth, Wester4n Australia..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Austronesian Origins'’
Invited Panel Member: Round-table discussions on Austronesian origins (screened on Taiwanese TV): at the 17th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association., Taipei, Taiwan..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘End of conference commentary'’
Invited as external observer at the 7th International Workshop and Conference on MHC Evolution, and VIII Complement Genetics Workshop., Perth, Wester4n Australia..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Is it safe to give iron in malaria-endemic areas?’
Invited WHO Speaker, Oral Presentation and Panel discussion at: The Multilateral Initiative on Malaria (MIM), 3rd Pan-African Conference on Malaria in Arusha (Session on Malaria, Anaemia, and Micronutrients),, Arusha, Tanzania..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Origins of Polynesians: Out-of-Taiwan or Wallacea?'’
Oral presentation at the 17th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association., Taipei, Taiwan..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Polynesians not the first Argonauts of the Pacific: Evidence for an Early Holocene expansion from Wallacea to New Guinea and Near Oceania'’
Oral presentation at the 17th Congress of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association., Taipei, Taiwan..
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘The Real Eve'’
Series Consultant and talking head for TV Documentary on the Discovery Channel International, Launch, Soho, London,.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Were the Polynesians the First Argonauts of the Pacific and where did they come from?'’
Invited Speaker at the 7th International Workshop and Conference on MHC Evolution, and VIII Complement Genetics Workshop., Perth, Wester4n Australia..

2001

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"People, Plants, Pigs, Poultry and other Pets in the Pacific and Southeast Asia."’
Invited lecture in the Seminar Series: "The origins, spread and demography of early agricultural societies in South and Southeast Asia", Institute of Archaeology, University College, London, 25/10/2001.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Polynesians: devolved Taiwanese rice farmers or Wallacean maritime traders with fishing, foraging and horticultural skills’
Invited talk at the symposium: 'Examining the Farming /Language Dispersal Hypothesis', convenors. P. Bellwood & C. Renfrew., McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Cambridge..

2000

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer and Renfrew, Colin.
‘The genetic landscape of southern Siberia and Manchuria: attempt at a synthesis of archaeological, anthropological, and linguistic evidence'’
Invited Schlußdiskussion, Kolloquium., Hamburg University, Hamburg, Germany, 10/11/2000.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"Iron, and infectious disease: Does intervention help?"’
Invited Reviewer,"Oxford 2000: New Challenges in Tropical Medicine & Parasitology", Conference., Oxford, England, 21/09/2000.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"Iron, and its relation to immunity and infectious disease"’
Invited Speaker "the Belmont Meeting on Iron Deficiency Anemia" USAID/WHO, Belmont, MD, USA., 21/05/2000.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘"Iron and Infectious Disease: a Public Health Problem?"’
Invited Review, at the Nestle Conference on Nutrition., St Petersburg, Russia..
Stephen Oppenheimer, M. Richards and V. Macaulay
‘The Austronesian Homeland: A genetic perspective'’
Oral presentation at the Sixth Biennial Borneo Research Conference. UNIMAS., Kuching, Sarawak..
Stephen Oppenheimer and Kivisild, T., Reidla, M., Parik, J., Metspalu, E., Geberhlwot, T., Usanga, E., Golge, M., Villems, R.
‘“A Likely Post-LGM Impact of Western Asian Maternal Lineages to Eastern Africans”’
Paper presentation in the Cold Spring Harbour Biennial Symposium on ‘Human Origins & Disease’, Cold Spring Harbour Laboratories, Long Island, New York, USA..

1999

Conferences:

Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East: the Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia'’
Invited author talk at the Hay Literary Festival,, Hay-on-Wye,, 01/07/1999.
Stephen Oppenheimer
‘Eden in the East: the Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia'’
Invited author talk at Waterstones Bookshop., Tunbridge Wells,.

SHARE THIS PAGE



For a list of books and articles please click here.

This website uses Cookies

Cookies are used to ensure that you receive the best possible experience on our website. If you continue without changing your preferences, we'll assume that you are happy to enable all cookies on this site.